Causes of Brain Injury

Infections and Diseases

Infections that cause swelling in the brain or the membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord (meninges) can result in acquired brain injury (ABI).

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Causes of Brain Injury

Degenerative Conditions

Degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease lead to a progressive decline in brain function characterised by dementia. Symptoms include problems with memory, perception, behaviour, language and personality.

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Causes of Brain Injury

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) refers to a range of impairments that children are at risk of developing if exposed to alcohol before birth.

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Causes of Brain Injury

Brain tumours and brain cancer

Brain tumours can affect brain function in a number of ways and to varying degrees, depending on where they grow and how severe they are.

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Causes of Brain Injury

Alcohol & Drug Related Brain Injury

Alcohol is a poison, or neurotoxin, that can cause physical injury to the brain. This is known as Alcohol Related Brain Injury (ARBI). Other drugs, which fall into the category of stimulants, depressants or hallucinogens, can also lead to impairments. A person under the influence of alcohol or drugs is also at risk of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) due to accidents.

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Causes of Brain Injury

Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain Injury (lack of oxygen)

Brain injury can occur when there is a reduction in (hypoxic) or complete lack of (anoxic) oxygen supply to the brain.

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Causes of Brain Injury

Dementia and brain injury

Dementia is a category of brain diseases that result in memory loss and deterioration of speech, motor skills and cognitive functioning as it progresses.  

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Causes of Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been defined as ‘an injury to the brain resulting from an externally applied mechanical force that affects the brain and leads to loss of consciousness or coma’

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Causes of Brain Injury

Stroke

A stroke is an interruption of blood supply to part of the brain

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